Global warming is considered one of the greatest threats facing mankind in the 21st century. To address this pressing issue, we need to reform, with certain urgency, the ways we are using energy, i.e., energy generation, storage and conversion. In this talk, I will highlight the important bridging role of energy storage to energy generation and conversion. Then I will give an overview of the various battery technologies under intense research and compare the principles of the currently commercialized lithium ion batteries and a next generation Li battery, the lithium air battery. A few key challenges associated with lithium air batteries will be discussed. Finally, I will demonstrate, with experimental evidence, the ideas/concepts of how these problems may be solved by modifying the reaction mechanism.