Civilian crisis management is the most vibrant area of the European Common Security and Defence Policy with 18 of 24 operations containing civilian components. It is framed in a complex governance system in which the civilian personnel is contributed by member states although EU operations are mandated at European level.
This paper answers a gap in the literature in focusing on how domestic constraints and institutions affect civilian (and military) ESDP. The European Security Governance perspective (Webber et al. 2004; Norheim-Martinsen 2008) is used to argue that domestic constraints and institutions are the bottleneck for creating effective civilian capabilities and providing personnel to civilian ESDP operations.